IC basic Internal corrosion basic

 

Internal Corrosion for Pipelines

Chapter1–CorrosionTheory, Types,andMechanisms
CORROSION THEORY, TYPES, AND MECHANISMS
Introduction…………………………………
Fundamentals of Corrosion …………
Corrosion Types and Mechanisms….
Uniform Corrosion…….
Localized Corrosion ………….
Galvanic Corrosion………………
Area Ratio …………………..
Velocity/Flow Related Attack …………………
Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) ……………..
Environmentally Assisted Cracking…………………………
Effects of Environmental Variables on Corrosion………………….
Water Vapor …………………………
Temperature ………………………….
Aggressive Liquid Compositions/Low pH…………………
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) ………………………….
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)………………………..
Oxygen (O2) …………………
Liquid Hydrocarbons ………………………
Chapter2–IdentificationofCorrosionMechanisms
SAMPLING AND MONITORING………………
Introduction………………………….
Natural Gas Pipeline Considerations ……………………
Water Analysis…………………………
Sampling Locations………………………………..
Sampling Methods ……………………….
Sample Analysis………………..
Field Tests ……………………
Laboratory Tests………………………….
Sludge and Solids ……………………………
Liquid Pipeline Considerations…………………
ASTMD130 Detection of Copper Corrosion from Petroleum Products bytheCopper Strip
TarnishTest ………………………………………………..
Examination of Exposed Internal Surfaces …………………….
Visual Examination ………………………….
Chemical Analysis………………………….
Microbiological Testing……………………
Investigations of Pipe or Components Removed from Service ………………….
Introduction…………………………………..
Visual Examination and Record ………………………………..
Pipe Sample Preservation Procedures – Non-Ruptures…………………….
Pipe Sample Preservation Procedures–Ruptures………………………
Embedment (Replication) of Pipe Samples …………..
Liquid Testing ……………………………………………
Microbiological Testing…………………………….
Operational History Data ……………………………..
Coupons …………………………………
Location of coupons ………………………………
Conventional weight loss coupons………………………….
Enhanced Interpretation of Weight Loss Coupons………………….
Extended Analysis of Corrosion Coupons ……………………………..
Electrical Probes…………………………………………………..
Electrical Resistance (ER) Probes…………………………………..
Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) Probe……………………..
Other…………………………….

Chapter3–InternalCorrosionMitigation
INTERNAL CORROSION MITIGATION………………………………………
Introduction………………………………………
Corrosion Control Considerations…………………..
Natural Gas Pipelines ……………………………..
Liquid Pipelines……………………………..
Chemical Treatment……………..
How Chemicals Are Used………………………………………
Other Influences on Chemical Treatment Performance……………………
Effect of Temperature ……………………………………
Effects of Velocity …………………………………
Solubility …………………………………..
Compatibility with System Fluids and other Chemicals ……………………
Biocides …………………………..
Biocide Classifications …………………….
Selection Criteria and Evaluation……………………..
Application Methods for Biocides………………………..
Corrosion Inhibitors ………………………………….
Basic Inhibitor
Fundamentals of Inhibitor Mechanisms ………………………………
Selection Criteria and Evaluation……………………………….
Partitioning
Compatibility
Laboratory Testing ……………………………….
Field Evaluation and Monitoring………………
Application Methods………………….
Quality Control……………………………
Dosage Rates…………………………………….
Facilities Maintenance…………………………
Pigging…………………………………..
Pig Types …………………………………………
Drips………………………………….
Line-Sweeping ……………………………
Internal Corrosion Coatings………………………………..
Cathodic Protection …………………………………………
Facilities Design ………………………………..
Chapter4–InternalCorrosionIntegrityManagement
INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT……………………………..
Introduction………………………………..
Internal Corrosion Integrity Management……………………..
Decision Tree Process……………………………….
Integrity Assessment……………………..
Hydrostatic Testing …………………………….
ILI Tools ………………………………………
ICDA …………………………
Corrosion Analysis…………………..
Internal Corrosion Risk Management Planning ……………….
References ……………………………..